PATRICK COLLISON ASKS, "Is Bloom's Two Sigma phenomenon real? If so, what do we do about it?" 
One of Patrick's Questions pointed to educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom who found one-on-one tutoring using mastery learning led to a two sigma improvement in student performance. The results were replicated.  Bloom asks in his paper that identified the "2 Sigma Problem": how do we achieve these results in conditions more practical (i.e., more scalable) than one-to-one tutoring?
I'm currently hosting a one-on-one tutorial session for a first year BSc Honours student who is highly focused on pursuing a degree in Creative Media and Design in Ireland. I've read Bloom in great depth and expect to offer an answer to Patrick Collison's question as part of a peer-reviewed submission to the Irish Learning Technology Association. My theory involves highly collaborative creative work tracked with the same ruthlessness of the methodology needed to certify a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt.
1. Patrick's Questions inform my judgment.
[Bernie Goldbach is reading how to use Bloom's Taxonomy in the classroom while he teaches creative media for business on the Clonmel Digital Campus. Image from Class Central. Idea from Patrick Collison.]